WASHINGTON — President-elect Joseph R. Biden Jr. on Thursday proposed a $1.9 trillion rescue bundle to fight the financial downturn and the Covid-19 disaster, outlining the kind of sweeping assist that Democrats have demanded for months and signaling the shift within the federal authorities’s pandemic response as Mr. Biden prepares to take workplace.

The bundle contains greater than $400 billion to fight the pandemic immediately, together with cash to speed up vaccine deployment and to securely reopen most colleges inside 100 days. One other $350 billion would assist state and native governments bridge finances shortfalls, whereas the plan would additionally embrace $1,400 direct funds to people, extra beneficiant unemployment advantages, federally mandated paid go away for staff and huge subsidies for little one care prices.

“Throughout this pandemic, tens of millions of People, via no fault of their very own, have misplaced the dignity and respect that comes with a job and a paycheck,” Mr. Biden mentioned in a speech to the nation. “There may be actual ache overwhelming the actual financial system.”

He acknowledged the excessive price ticket however mentioned the nation couldn’t afford to do something much less. “The very well being of our nation is at stake,” Mr. Biden mentioned, including that it “doesn’t come cheaply, however failure to take action will value us dearly.”

Mr. Biden took swift motion to form the agenda at a time of nationwide disaster and a day after President Trump’s impeachment in the House. Whereas it displays the political shift in Washington as Democrats take management of Congress, help for Mr. Biden’s program will instantly run into challenges, beginning with the likelihood {that a} Senate trial of Mr. Trump may delay its passage.

Additionally it is unclear how simply Mr. Biden can safe sufficient votes for a plan of such ambition and expense, particularly within the Senate. Democratic victories in two Georgia particular elections final week gave Mr. Biden’s celebration management of the Senate — however solely with a 50-50 margin after Vice President-elect Kamala Harris’s tiebreaking vote. Mr. Biden must compensate for any defecting reasonable Democrats with Republican votes at a time of scarce bipartisanship.

Mr. Biden mentioned that lawmakers would wish to return collectively for the nice of the nation, and that “unity shouldn’t be some pie within the sky dream — it’s a sensible step to getting the issues we’ve got to get achieved as a rustic, get achieved collectively.”

His speech on Thursday got here at an extremely difficult second, as virus cases continue to climb, tens of millions of staff stay sidelined and America’s partisan divisions are threatening to tear it aside. Per week after a mob stormed the Capitol to disrupt Congress’s certification of Mr. Biden’s win, Washington has come to resemble an armed camp, with metal barricades being erected throughout town and armed legislation enforcement policing the streets.

Greater than 20,000 Nationwide Guardsmen are anticipated to flood Washington earlier than Mr. Biden’s swearing-in on Jan. 20.

The financial rebound from the pandemic recession has additionally reeled into reverse amid a winter surge of the virus and new waves of restrictions on financial exercise in cities and states.

The Labor Division reported on Thursday that 1.15 million Americans filed new unemployment claims within the first full week of the brand new 12 months, a 25 p.c improve from the earlier week. One other 284,000 claims have been filed for Pandemic Unemployment Help, an emergency federal program for staff like freelancers who don’t usually qualify for jobless advantages. The nation shed 140,000 jobs in December, the division reported final week.

Mr. Biden’s aides say the urgency of the second drove the president-elect to suggest a considerably bigger financial jolt than what the Obama administration pushed via upon taking workplace amid a recession in 2009. The Biden proposal is greater than 50 p.c bigger than the Obama-Biden stimulus, after adjusting for inflation, and it comes on high of a number of trillions of {dollars} of financial assist that Congress permitted final 12 months underneath Mr. Trump.

The bundle mirrored the scope of the problem going through the financial system and the nation’s well being system. In a briefing on Thursday, one Biden official famous that the prevailing nationwide planning and infrastructure for mass vaccinations and testing was far much less developed than the incoming White Home workforce had anticipated.

Mr. Biden detailed his so-called American Rescue Plan in a night speech in Delaware, successfully kicking off his presidency and inserting him within the brightest highlight since his nomination acceptance speech final summer season on the Democratic Nationwide Conference.

The president-elect struck an pressing, however optimistic tone, saying the US may overcome its present challenges.

“Out of all of the peril of this second, I need you to know I see the promise,” Mr. Biden mentioned. “I’m as optimistic as I’ve ever been.”

The plan was lauded by progressive teams in addition to by the nation’s main enterprise foyer, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, which was usually at odds with the Obama administration over spending and laws. “We applaud the president-elect’s concentrate on vaccinations and on financial sectors and households that proceed to undergo because the pandemic rages on,” the chamber mentioned in a press release.

Republicans have been largely silent on the plan, which incorporates the kind of state and native assist that turned a sticking level in final 12 months’s stimulus negotiations. Congress was capable of agree on a $900 billion bundle in December solely after such assist was excluded. However Mr. Biden outlined his rationale for together with such funding, saying it was very important to avoiding cutbacks and layoffs that might set again the battle towards the virus and additional harm the financial system.

“Tens of millions of individuals placing their lives in danger are the very individuals now prone to shedding their jobs: law enforcement officials, firefighters, all first responders, nurses, educators,” Mr. Biden mentioned.

Mr. Biden’s “rescue” proposal, which might be financed fully via elevated federal borrowing, flows from the concept that the virus and the restoration are intertwined and that the financial system can not rebound with out mass vaccine deployment.

“What the financial system wants is a profitable rollout of the vaccines, and discount within the dangers of social and financial exercise,” mentioned Aaron Sojourner, a labor economist on the College of Minnesota’s Carlson Faculty of Administration who served within the White Home Council of Financial Advisers underneath the Obama and Trump administrations. “That can go a good distance towards selling restoration. It gained’t go all the way in which, however it can go a good distance.”

Mr. Biden, who has promised to get “100 million Covid vaccine pictures into the arms of the American individuals” by his one centesimal day in workplace, mentioned final week that he meant to launch practically all obtainable coronavirus vaccine vials as soon as he takes workplace, fairly than holding some again because the Trump administration had been doing.

The $20 billion “nationwide vaccine program” he introduced on Thursday envisions neighborhood vaccination facilities across the nation. In current speeches, he has mentioned he wish to see mass vaccination websites in highschool gymnasiums, sports activities stadiums and the like, maybe staffed by the Nationwide Guard or staff of the Federal Emergency Administration Company.

Mr. Biden additionally referred to as for a “public well being jobs program” that might tackle his objectives of bolstering the financial system and the Covid-19 response whereas additionally rebuilding the nation’s fragile public well being infrastructure. The proposal would fund 100,000 public well being staff to have interaction in vaccine outreach and call tracing.

On the identical time, Mr. Biden is eager on addressing the racial disparities which were so painfully uncovered by the coronavirus pandemic, which has disproportionately claimed the lives and jobs of individuals of colour. He pledged to extend funding for neighborhood well being facilities and to fund efforts to mitigate the pandemic in prisons and jails, the place Black individuals and Latinos are overrepresented.

In his remarks, Mr. Biden lamented a “rising starvation disaster,” significantly amongst minority communities, saying: “A couple of in 5 Black and Latino households in America report that they don’t have sufficient meals to eat. It’s mistaken. It’s tragic. It’s unacceptable.”

He proposed a variety of efforts to assist those that have suffered essentially the most within the financial pullback. His plan would offer emergency paid go away to 106 million People, whatever the dimension of their employer, a proposal that many congressional Republicans labored to pare again in a stimulus invoice handed final spring. And it might prolong tax credit to many households to offset as much as $8,000 in annual little one care prices.

It gives billions of {dollars} in rental assist and would give grants to tens of millions of the hardest-hit small companies. It additionally quickly will increase the dimensions of two tax credit in a way that might successfully present more money from the federal government to low-income staff and households. And it might prolong expanded unemployment advantages via the tip of September, with an additional $400 weekly complement.

Mr. Biden additionally referred to as on Congress to lift the federal minimal wage to $15 an hour, a precedence he outlined throughout his marketing campaign.

.

Mr. Biden plans to unveil one other, bigger set of spending proposals in February, and he started laying the groundwork to finance these efforts by raising taxes on corporations and the rich. He drew a pointy distinction between the struggling of low-wage staff and people struggling with no paycheck with the wealthiest People, saying there’s a “rising divide between these few individuals on the very high who’re doing fairly properly on this financial system — and the remainder of America.”

“Simply since this pandemic started, the wealth of the highest 1 p.c has grown by roughly $1.5 trillion because the finish of final 12 months — 4 instances the quantity for your complete backside 50 p.c,” he mentioned.

The second bundle is anticipated to be centered on job creation and infrastructure, together with a whole bunch of billions of {dollars} of spending on clean-energy initiatives like electrical automobile charging stations, together with well being care and training spending.

Mr. Biden has mentioned he’ll work to construct Republican help for his plans, and he’ll want 10 Republican votes within the Senate to beat a filibuster. However high Democrats within the Home and Senate are preparing to pivot quickly to a parliamentary course of referred to as finances reconciliation within the occasion they’ll get solely a easy majority within the Senate. Republicans used the process to bypass a filibuster and approve Mr. Trump’s signature tax cuts in 2017.

Republicans’ refusal to contemplate a stimulus bundle in extra of $1 trillion held down the dimensions of the final congressional aid invoice, handed in December. Mr. Biden’s aides mentioned Thursday that they have been assured that the practically $2 trillion bundle he had proposed would discover extensive help amongst Democrats at a time when rates of interest stay low and plenty of economists are urging lawmakers to deficit spend with a purpose to promote financial progress.

Sheryl Homosexual Stolberg contributed reporting.